What Is Lupus disease: Symptoms, causes, diagnosis, and more

What Is Lupus disease: Symptoms, causes, diagnosis, and more

Lupus disease: Symptoms, causes, diagnosis, and more

 

Lupus is an autoimmune disease in which the immune system of the body gets hyperactive and assaults healthy tissue over time. Lupus is sometimes referred to as the "disease of a thousand faces" because of its complexity.


According to the Lupus Foundation of America, around 16,000 new cases of lupus are reported each year in the United States, and up to 1.5 million people may be living with the disease.


TYPES

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), cutaneous lupus (such as discoid lupus erythematosus [DLE]), drug-induced lupus (DIL), and neonatal lupus are some of the numerous types of lupus.

Systemic Lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a type of lupus that affects the entire body.

SLE is the most frequent kind of lupus, accounting for 70% of all cases. It's a condition that affects the entire body. This implies it can have an impact on a variety of organs and systems throughout the body. As a result, SLE is usually a more severe form of lupus. The signs and symptoms might be modest to severe.

SLE can induce inflammation in the following areas: skin \sjoints \slungs \skidneys \sblood \sheart


skin

joints

lungs

kidneys

blood

heart


This inflammation could occur in just one of these places, or it could impact numerous areas at the same time.

This illness usually goes through flare-ups and remissions in cycles. A person with lupus may have no symptoms during remission. The disease is active during a flare-up, and a person's symptoms may recur or new ones may arise.

Some persons with SLE may experience flare-ups on a frequent basis. Others may only have them once in a few years. Others may be involved in long-term activities.


Discoid lupus erythematosus


Discoid lupus erythematosus is a kind of lupus erythematosus.

Symptoms of DLE, a kind of cutaneous lupus, are limited to the skin. DLE manifests as circular lesions on the scalp and face, but it can also affect other regions of the body, such as the insides of the ears.


The lesions are usually red and might become thick and scaly over time. Scarring and skin discoloration might occur as a result of the lesions in some circumstances. Hair may not regenerate in the area where lesions scar on the scalp.


According to the Lupus Foundation of America, DLE does not harm the internal organs, although about 10% of patients with DLE go on to develop SLE. However, it's possible that these folks had SLE before being diagnosed with DLE because of their skin complaints.


Subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus is a kind of lupus erythematosus that affects the skin.

Skin lesions that form on regions of the body that are exposed to the sun are known as subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus. These lesions do not leave scars, however they can cause discolouration of the skin.


Drug-induced lupus is a kind of lupus that occurs when a DIL is an autoimmune disorder brought on by some drugs. The symptoms are comparable to those of SLE, but they are usually milder. More than 100 drugs from Trusted Source have been identified as possible causes of DIL.

Medications that are commonly associated with DIL include:


hydralazine, a hypertension medication

procainamide, a heart arrhythmia medication

isoniazid, an antibiotic used to treat tuberculosis

minocycline, an antibiotic used to treat some skin conditions

DIL symptoms usually arise months or years after using these drugs on a regular basis. DIL affects about 5% of persons who take hydralazine for a long time and 20% of people who take procainamide for a long time. Although other drugs can cause DIL, the chances are small.

Causes

Lupus is an autoimmune disease for which the specific cause is unknown.


What's the problem?

Organs, tissues, and cells make up the immune system, which is a complicated network. It defends the body against foreign invaders like viruses, bacteria, fungus, and poisons. It also removes any dead or malfunctioning cells.


Antibodies, which are Y-shaped proteins, are produced by the immune system to protect the body. These antibodies either neutralize or signal other cells to remove a threat. These antibodies are made by B lymphocytes, which are specialized white blood cells. When a person develops an autoimmune disease like lupus, their immune system is unable to distinguish between harmful molecules (antigens) and healthy tissue. In error, the body misidentifies itself as foreign.

As a result, antibodies are directed against both healthy tissue and antigens by the immune system. Swelling, discomfort, and tissue damage result as a result of this.


Antinuclear antibodies (ANAs) are typically seen in persons who suffer from autoimmune diseases like lupus. They act by attacking the body's own cells' nuclei. The nucleus is the region of the cell where genetic material is stored.


Researchers are still unsure what causes lupus, but they believe it is caused by a combination of variables.


Cell death, a natural process that occurs as the body renews its cells, is one plausible idea. According to research, persons with lupus' bodies may not be able to adequately eliminate dead cells due to genetic variables.

Symptoms

During flare-ups, the symptoms of lupus appear. People frequently have periods of remission between flare-ups, when they have little or no symptoms.


Lupus manifests itself in a variety of ways, including the following:Trusted Source:


muscle and joint ache tiredness

Fever, chest pain while inhaling deeply, sensitivity to sunlight, mouth ulcers, and memory issues are all symptoms of a fever.

A crimson, butterfly-shaped rash across the nose and cheeks is known as malar rash.

headaches

hair loss that is odd

Raynaud's illness is characterized by pale or purple fingers or toes caused by cold or tension.

arthritis

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